tool design book
| Metal stamping| Tool die design book | Tool Design Techniques | Standard & equivalent | Geometric Dimensioning Tolerance | Contact Us |
| Tool & Die Makers tips and tricks |

Fundamental Tool & Die Making techniques

Free Articles
Bend Radius
Deep Drawn
Fine Blanking
Progression strip layout

Slug pulling prevention
Tool die Design
Cutting clearance

Downloadable Ebooks

Tool die design booknd Fixture
Strip layout

Jigs and Fixture Design Book

Geometric Tolerances

ISO tolerance for shafts
ISO tolerance for holes
Surface Roughness
Surface Texture

Quality Control Co

Process Capability CPK
Sampling plan
AQL Level I, II, III


urface Texture and its symbol

A surface roughness value, cut off value or reference length. The processing method, grain direction ( machining direction ) are indicated around the surface texture symbol as shown below :-

  surface texture   a = Ra Value
b = Machining method
c = Cut off value, length
d = Grain direction
e = Parameter
f = Parameter other than Ra value
g = Surface undulation

surface texture
Surface Symbol
Surface texture symbol
Removal od material by machining is required
surface finish
Removal of material is prohibited
Ra value
Upper limit of Ra Value
Grain direction
surface texture
Machining Method
surface finish
Upper and lower limit of Ra value  

Surface finished its roughness




Materials & Tretment

Annealing metal
Case hardening
Material density
Electrical Conductivity
heat treating steel


Equivalent and standards

Comparision table

Alu comparison table
Carbide equivalent chart
Carbon Steel
Copper alloy
Low alloys
Nickel alloys
Stainless Steel
Steel comparison table
Tool Steel equivalent
Tungsten Carbide
Wrought stainless Steel
Inch - metri Conversion Charts
Periodic Table of elements


Drill Angle
Drill size


Wise Tool ™ all rights reserved