tool die design metal stamping


Tool & Die Making
Bend Radius
Deep Drawn
Fine Blanking
Progression strip layout

Slug pulling prevention
Tool die Design
Tool die design book

Jig and Fixture
Jigs and Fixture Design

Materials treatment
Annealing metal
Case hardening
Electrical Conductivity
heat treatment process
heat treating steel

Thermal Expansion

Alu comparison table
Aluminum Tempering
Carbon Steel
Copper alloy
Low alloys
Material nations & Equivalents
Nickel alloys

Stainless Steel

Stainless Steel comparison table
Tool Steel equivalent
Tungsten Carbide
Wrought stainless Steel

Conversion Charts
Drill Angle
Drill size
Energy Efficiency
Math Area
Machining Cutting Time
Technical articles
Work Done

Geometric Tolerancing
Tolerance chart ISO
Surface Roughness
Surface Texture

Quality Control
Process Capability CPK
Sampling plan
Level I, II, III

Engineering Plastic
Machining of plastic
Selection of plastic


Surface Texture and its symbol

A surface roughness value, cut off value or reference length. The processing method, grain direction ( machining direction ) are indicated around the surface texture symbol as shown below :-

  surface texture   a = Ra Value
b = Machining method
c = Cut off value, length
d = Grain direction
e = Parameter
f = Parameter other than Ra value
g = Surface undulation

surface texture
Surface Symbol
Surface texture symbol
Removal od material by machining is required
surface finish
Removal of material is prohibited
Ra value
Upper limit of Ra Value
Grain direction
surface texture
Machining Method
surface finish
Upper and lower limit of Ra value  

Surface finished its roughness