tool die design metal stamping


Tool & Die Making
Bend Radius
Deep Drawn
Fine Blanking
Progression strip layout

Slug pulling prevention
Tool die Design
Tool die design book

Jig and Fixture
Jigs and Fixture Design

Materials treatment
Annealing metal
Case hardening
Electrical Conductivity
heat treatment process
heat treating steel

Thermal Expansion

Alu comparison table
Aluminum Tempering
Carbon Steel
Copper alloy
Low alloys
Material nations & Equivalents
Nickel alloys

Stainless Steel

Stainless Steel comparison table
Tool Steel equivalent
Tungsten Carbide
Wrought stainless Steel

Conversion Charts
Drill Angle
Drill size
Energy Efficiency
Math Area
Machining Cutting Time
Technical articles
Work Done

Geometric Tolerancing
Tolerance chart ISO
Surface Roughness
Surface Texture

Quality Control
Process Capability CPK
Sampling plan
Level I, II, III

Engineering Plastic
Machining of plastic
Selection of plastic


Aluminum temper designation

Aluminum is usually named in 4 numerical digits and follows by a temper designation. For example, 5052-H32. 5052= Aluminum/magnesium alloy, H3 = strain hardened and stabilized by low temperature heating. The last digit after the second representing the hardness on the Aluminum. In this case 2 = 1/4 hard.Aluminum/magnesium alloy


H Strain hardened (cold worked) with or without thermal treatment.
H1 Strain hardened without thermal treatment.
H2 Strain hardened and partially annealed.
H3 Strain hardened and stabilized by low temperature heating.
Last digit A last digit represent hardness.
Hx2 = 1/4 hard.
Hx4 = 1/2 hard.
Hx6 = 3/4 hard.
Hx8 = full hard.
O Full Soft (annealed).
T1 Heat treated to produce stable tempers.
T2 Partially solution heat treated and naturally aged.
T3 Solution heat treated and cold worked.
T4 Solution heat treated and naturally aged.
T5 Partially solution heat treated and artificially aged.
T51 Stress relieved by stretching.
T510 No further straightening after stretching.
T511 Minor straightening after stretching.
T52 Stress relieved by thermal treatment.
T6 Solution heat treated and artificially aged.
T7 Solution heat treated and stabilized.
T8 Solution heat treated, cold worked, and artificially aged.
T9 Solution heat treated, artificially aged, and cold worked.