tool die design metal stamping


Tool & Die Making
Bend Radius
Deep Drawn
Fine Blanking
Progression strip layout

Slug pulling prevention
Tool die Design
Tool die design book

Jig and Fixture
Jigs and Fixture Design

Materials treatment
Annealing metal
Case hardening
Electrical Conductivity
heat treatment process
heat treating steel

Thermal Expansion

Alu comparison table
Aluminum Tempering
Carbon Steel
Copper alloy
Low alloys
Material nations & Equivalents
Nickel alloys

Stainless Steel

Stainless Steel comparison table
Tool Steel equivalent
Tungsten Carbide
Wrought stainless Steel

Conversion Charts
Drill Angle
Drill size
Energy Efficiency
Math Area
Machining Cutting Time
Technical articles
Work Done

Geometric Tolerancing
Tolerance chart ISO
Surface Roughness
Surface Texture

Quality Control
Process Capability CPK
Sampling plan
Level I, II, III

Engineering Plastic
Machining of plastic
Selection of plastic


Elements in Tool Steels and high speed steel


Carbon - Carbon is the most important element in steel; it combines with other elements to provide hardness and strength to steel. Increasing in carbon content, the strength and hardenability of the steel increases. Ductility, machinability, formability, and weldability will decrease if hardness increases.

Cobalt - Cobalt improves red hardness and high temperature strength, It is frequently used in high-speed steels, hot forming tool steels, and high temperature materials.

Manganese - Manganese contributes to strength and hardness to steel, it has a strong effect on increasing the hardenability of steel by reducing the critical cooling rate and can reduce heat treating distortion.

Nickel - With the combination with chromium, nickel produces greater hardenability in tool steel. Nickel increases, corrosion resistance increases.

Silicon - A strong promoter of hardenability and increases scale resistance. Silicon helps improve toughness and provides a greater depth of hardening.

Sulfur - Sulfur added to steel to improve machinability by increasing lubrication and small chip formation.


Tungsten Carbide Forming Elements

Chromium – Chromium is generally added to steel to increase resistance to corrosion and oxidation, to increase hardenability, and to improve high temperature strength. Chromium is a carbide former, which increases edge retention and wear resistance.

MolybdenumMolybdenum increases temper brittleness and promotes fine grain formation. Molybdenum also increases weldability and increases the tendency for secondary hardening during tempering.

Tungsten Tungsten improves toughness and prevents grain growth. Tungsten increases high temperature strength and red hardness. It is primarily used in high speed steels and hot forming tool steels.

Vanadium Vanadium is an excellent carbide former, which increases wear resistance. It forms the highest hardness carbides. It increases high temperature strength and resistance to softening