in Tool Steels and high speed steel
- Carbon is the most important element in steel; it combines
with other elements to provide hardness and strength to steel. Increasing
in carbon content, the strength and hardenability of the steel increases.
Ductility, machinability, formability, and weldability will decrease
if hardness increases.
- Cobalt improves red hardness and high temperature strength,
It is frequently used in high-speed steels, hot forming tool steels,
and high temperature materials.
- Manganese contributes to strength and hardness to steel, it has
a strong effect on increasing the hardenability of steel by reducing
the critical cooling rate and can reduce heat treating distortion.
- With the combination with chromium, nickel produces greater hardenability
in tool steel. Nickel increases, corrosion resistance increases.
- A strong promoter of hardenability and increases scale resistance.
Silicon helps improve toughness and provides a greater depth of
- Sulfur added to steel to improve machinability by increasing
lubrication and small chip formation.
Carbide Forming Elements
Chromium is generally added to steel to increase resistance
to corrosion and oxidation, to increase hardenability, and to improve
high temperature strength. Chromium is a carbide
former, which increases edge retention and wear resistance.
increases temper brittleness and promotes fine grain formation.
Molybdenum also increases weldability and increases the tendency
for secondary hardening during tempering.
improves toughness and prevents grain growth. Tungsten increases
high temperature strength and red hardness. It is primarily used
in high speed steels and hot forming tool steels.
is an excellent carbide former, which increases wear resistance.
It forms the highest hardness carbides. It increases high temperature
strength and resistance to softening