of steel materials and steel specification.
Wear The wear of material due to hard objects moving
against and reducing softer particles.
Wear The displacement of material resulting from
two materials sliding against one another while under pressure then
being redeposited on the other surface leaving pits and surface
projections. Also known as galling.
A steel material contents two or more elements in a solid
Heating and cooling of steel materials for the purpose of
removing stresses, softening or changing in its ductility.
This phase is achieved by heating the steel to above its
critical transformation temperature to dissolve the alloying elements
into the iron matrix.
A solid semi-finished round or square ingot that has been
hot-worked by forging or rolling.
Plastic deformation of steel at a temperature to insure strain hardening.
strength - the ability for a tool steel to resist permanent
deformation when a load is applied axially. When a load is applied
in compression on a tool steel, the tool will compress in the longitudnal
direction and expand outward. When the load is removed the tool
will return to its original shape and size. If the tool doesn't
return to its original dimensions, then the load has exceeded the
tool's compressive strength.
Temperature - The temperature at which austenite transforms
to martensite. This is the stage when steel harden actually takes
The loss of carbon from the surface of steel. It is a common
surface condition of hot rolled steel and is produced during the
heating and rolling operations when atmospheric oxygen reacts with
the heated surface and removes the carbon.
The ability of a steel to deform plastically without fracturing,
ductility can be measured by it elongation or reduction of area
in a tensile test.
Limit The greatest amount of stress that a steel
can withstand without a permanent deformation.
a pure chemical substance consisting of one type of atom.
Steels are comprised of iron, carbon and other elements such as
silicon, manganese,chromium and vanadium.
The amount of permanent extension in the vicinity
of the fracture in the tensile or tension test, usually expressed
as a percentage of the original gauge length.
The progressive fracture of a steel by means of a crack which
spreads under repeated cycles of stress.
Size The physical size of the austenite grains
during austenizing. The actual size can vary due to thermal treatment,
time and forging operations.
The process of heating and cooling a steel to increase the
How hard is the treated steel. Hardness is measured in Rockwell,
Brinell or Vickers.
Treatment - The heat treating the steel. The series of
processes can include austenizing, quenching, annealing and tempering.
A steel casting that was formed when molten steel
solidifies in a mold. The ingot is then reheated and rolled into
slabs, plates, blooms or billets for further processing into bars
The resulting maximum hardness microstructure acquired from
the transformation of the softer austenite microstructure.
Properties The properties of steel such as, modulus
of elasticity, tensile strength, elongation, hardness and fatigue
of Elasticity The ratio within the limit of elasticity
of the stress to the corresponding strain. The stress in pounds
per square inch is divided by the elongation in fractions of an
inch for each inch of the orginal length of the test specimen.
Is a surface hardening process that adding nitrogen to an
steel alloy by heating the metal in contact with ammonia gas or
other suitable nitrogenous material.
Deformation Deformation of a material that will
remain after removal of the load which caused it.
The process of rapidly cooling a steel in order to obtain
the hardened martensite of the steel.
Hardness A steels ability to resist softening
at elevated temperatures over extended periods of time.
Stress - The stresses within the steel caused by coldworking
or drastic temperature differences from quenching or welding..
Deformation of a material produced by an outside
Releiving The heating of steel to a temperature
below its transformation temperature and then slowly cooling to
minimize the development of new residual stresses.
The process of reheating steel to a suitable temperature
below the transformation temperature for an appropriate amount of
time. The steel is then allowed to cool to room temperature. This
process changes the hardness, increases the toughness and reduces
the stress in the steel.
strength The maximum amount of pressure that a
material will carry before breaking under a slowly applied, gradually
The ability of a metal to absorb energy and plastically deform
Toughness This is the steel's ability to flex
in a sideways direction while maintaining the ability to return
to its original shape without breaking or cracking.
Resistance A steels ability to resist wear from
contact with another material.
Strength Stress corresponding to the fixed permanent
deformation such as .1 or .2% offset from the modulus or elastic